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Originally, the Ginzburg-Laundau model is a model in solid state physics for superconductivity.
Roughly this type of model has then been used as models for 2d quantum field theory in string theory. There, a Landau-Ginzburg model (LG-model) is a 2-dimensional supersymmetric sigma model QFT characterized by the fact that its Lagrangian contains a potential term: given a complex Riemannian target space $(X,g)$, the action functional of the LG-model is schematically of the form
where $\Sigma$ is the 2-dimensional worldsheet and $W : X \to \mathbb{C}$ – called the model’s superpotential – is a holomorphic function. (Usually $X$ is actually taken to be a Cartesian space and all the nontrivial structure is in $W$.)
Landau-Ginzburg models have gained importance as constituting one type of QFTs that are related under homological mirror symmetry:
If the target space $X$ is a Fano variety?, the usual B-model does not quite exist on it, since the corresponding supersymmetric string sigma model is not conformally invariant as a quantum theory, and the axial $U(1)$ R-current? used to define the B-twist is anomalous. Still, there exists an analogous derived category of B-branes. A Landau-Ginburg model is something that provides the dual A-branes to this under homological mirror symmetry. Conversely, Landau-Ginzburg B-branes are homological mirror duals to the A-model on a Fano variety. (…)
As suggested by Maxim Kontsevich (see Kapustin-Li, section 7), the B-branes in the LG-model (at least in a certain class of cases) are not given by chain complexes of coherent sheaves as in the B-model, but by twisted complexes : for these the square of the differential is in general non-vanishing and identified with the superpotential of the LG-model.
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A brane for a LG model is given by a matrix factorization of its superpotential.
(…) CaldararuTu
Original articles are
Cumrun Vafa Nicholas P. Warner, Catastrophes and the Classification of Conformal Theories, Phys.Lett. B218 (1989) 51
Brian Greene, Cumrun Vafa, Calabi-Yau Manifolds and Renormalization Group Flows, Nucl.Phys. B324 (1989) 371
Edward Witten, Phases of $N=2$ Theories In Two Dimensions, Nucl.Phys.B403:159-222,1993 (arXiv:hep-th/9301042)
Lecture notes include
The partition function of LG-models and its relation to elliptic genera is disucssed in
Edward Witten, On the Landau-Ginzburg Description of $N=2$ Minimal Models, Int.J.Mod.Phys.A9:4783-4800,1994 (arXiv:hep-th/9304026)
Toshiya Kawai, Yasuhiko Yamada, Sung-Kil Yang, Elliptic Genera and $N=2$ Superconformal Field Theory (arXiv:hep-th/9306096)
The branes of the LG-model are discussed for instance in
The derived category of D-branes in type B LG-models is discussed in
Dmitri Orlov, Triangulated categories of singularities and D-branes in Landau-Ginzburg models, Proc. Steklov Inst. Math. 2004, no. 3 (246), 227–248 (arXiv:math/0302304)
Dmitri Orlov_Derived categories of coherent sheaves and triangulated categories of singularities_, Algebra, arithmetic, and geometry: in honor of Yu. I. Manin. Vol. II, 503–531, Progr. Math., 270, Birkhäuser Boston, Inc., Boston, MA, 2009 (arXiv:math.ag/0503632)
Andrei Caldararu, Junwu Tu, Curved $A_\infty$-algebras and Landau-Ginzburg models (pdf)
A formulation in terms of linear logic and the geometry of interaction is in
Discussion of topological Landau-Ginzburg B-models explicitly as TCFTs is in
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