general mechanisms
electric-magnetic duality, Montonen-Olive duality, geometric Langlands duality
string-fivebrane duality
string-QFT duality
QFT-QFT duality:
In string theory a given worldsheet with boundaries (Riemann surface with punctures) may typically be read in at least two different ways as describing either a closed string or an open string scattering-process.
graphics grabbed from Schomerus 07, Figure 4
But since the corresponding string scattering amplitude is the same no matter which perspective is taken, this exhibits an equivalence (“duality”) between these open- and closed string amplitudes.
For example, a cylinder worldsheet stretching between two D-brane worldvolumes manifestly represents equivalently the following two rather different-seeming string scattering-processes:
a closed string emitted from one of the branes and absorbed by the other;
an open string with ends on both branes going around a 1-loop vacuum diagram.
graphics grabbed from Schomerus 07, Figure 4, see also e.g. Peschanskia 09, Figure 1
Since
closed string excitations include gravitons inducing gravity
(in the above example: the gravitational attraction between the two branes)
open string excitations include gluons inducing the force described by Yang-Mills gauge fields –e.g. the strong nuclear force in quantum chromodynamics
(in the above example: the worldvolume gauge field on coincident branes)
open/closed string duality implies gauge/gravity duality between these different effective field theories. This is exhibited by phenomena such as
Open/closed string duality plays a subtle role when interpreting the 't Hooft double line notation of gauge theory Feynman diagrams in the large N limit alternatively as open string or as closed string worldsheets (Gopakumar-Vafa 98, Gaiotto-Rastelli 03, Gopakumar 04).
Review:
Leonardo Rastelli, Lectures on open/closed string duality, PiTP 2004 (pdf, pdf)
Volker Schomerus, Strings for quantum chromodynamics, International journal of modern physics A 22:30 (2007) (doi:10.1142/S0217751X07038827)
R. Peschanskia, Gauge-gravity duality and high energy collisions, Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements, Volume 191, June 2009, Pages 320-330 (doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2009.03.138)
Original articles:
Rajesh Gopakumar, Cumrun Vafa, On the Gauge Theory/Geometry Correspondence, Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 3 (1999) 1415-1443 (arXiv:hep-th/9811131)
Justin Khoury, Herman Verlinde, On Open/Closed String Duality (arXiv:hep-th/0001056)
Davide Gaiotto, Leonardo Rastelli, A paradigm of open/closed duality: Liouville D-branes and the Kontsevich model, JHEP 0507:053,2005 (hep-th/0312196)
Rajesh Gopakumar, Free Field Theory as a String Theory?, Comptes Rendus Physique 5 (2004) 1111-1119 (hep-th/0409233)
Last revised on March 8, 2020 at 09:56:22. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.