practical foundation of mathematics


Type theory

natural deduction metalanguage, practical foundations

  1. type formation rule
  2. term introduction rule
  3. term elimination rule
  4. computation rule

type theory (dependent, intensional, observational type theory, homotopy type theory)

syntax object language

computational trinitarianism = propositions as types +programs as proofs +relation type theory/category theory

logiccategory theorytype theory
trueterminal object/(-2)-truncated objecth-level 0-type/unit type
falseinitial objectempty type
proposition(-1)-truncated objecth-proposition, mere proposition
proofgeneralized elementprogram
cut rulecompositionsubstitution
cut elimination for implicationcounit for hom-tensor adjunctionbeta reduction
introduction rule for implicationunit for hom-tensor adjunctioneta conversion
conjunctionproductproduct type
disjunctioncoproduct ((-1)-truncation of)sum type (bracket type of)
implicationinternal homfunction type
negationinternal hom into initial objectfunction type into empty type
universal quantificationdependent productdependent product type
existential quantificationdependent sum ((-1)-truncation of)dependent sum type (bracket type of)
equivalencepath space objectidentity type
equivalence classquotientquotient type
inductioncolimitinductive type, W-type, M-type
higher inductionhigher colimithigher inductive type
completely presented setdiscrete object/0-truncated objecth-level 2-type/preset/h-set
setinternal 0-groupoidBishop set/setoid
universeobject classifiertype of types
modalityclosure operator monadmodal type theory, monad (in computer science)
linear logic(symmetric, closed) monoidal categorylinear type theory/quantum computation
proof netstring diagramquantum circuit
(absence of) contraction rule(absence of) diagonalno-cloning theorem

homotopy levels






In the general context of foundations of mathematics in practical foundations (following a term introduced in (Taylor)) the emphasis is on conceptually natural formalizations that concentrate the essence of practice and in turn use the result to guide practice (Lawvere), as in (Eilenberg-Steenrod, Harper).

Formal systems of interest here are natural deduction in type theories?, which allow natural expressions for central concepts in mathematics (notably via their categorical semantics and the conceptual strength of category theory).


  • Paul Taylor, Practical Foundations of Mathematics, Cambridge University Press (web)

Under computational trinitarianism this corresponds to a practical foundation in programming, laid out in

A foundation for algebraic topology is this practical spirit is laid out in

Revised on October 12, 2012 16:50:37 by Urs Schreiber (