on chain complexes/model structure on cosimplicial abelian groups
related by the Dold-Kan correspondence
on algebras over an operad, on modules over an algebra over an operad
on dendroidal sets, for dendroidal complete Segal spaces, for dendroidal Cartesian fibrations
(2,1)-quasitopos?
structures in a cohesive (∞,1)-topos
A hypercover is the generalization of a Cech nerve of a cover: it is a simplicial resolution of an object obtained by iteratively applying covering families.
Let
be the geometric embedding defining a sheaf topos $Sh(C)$ into a presheaf topos $PSh(C)$.
A morphism
in the category of simplicial objects in $PSh(C)$, hence the category of simplicial presheaves, is called a hypercover if for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$ the canonical morphism
in $PSh(C)$ are local epimorphisms (in other words, $f$ is a “Reedy local-epimorphism”).
Here this morphism into the fiber product is that induced from the naturality square
of the unit of the coskeleton functor $\mathbf{cosk}_n : PSh(C)^{\Delta^{op}} \to PSh(C)^{\Delta^{op}}$.
A hypercover is called bounded by $n \in \mathbb{N}$ if for all $k \geq n$ the morphisms $Y_{k} \to (\mathbf{cosk}_{k-1} Y)_k \times_{(\mathbf{cosk}_{k-1} X)_k} X_k$ are isomorphisms.
The smallest $n$ for which this holds is called the height of the hypercover.
A hypercover that also satisfies the cofibrancy condition in the projective local model structure on simplicial presheaves in that
it is simplicial-degree wise a coproduct of representables;
degenerate cells split off as a direct summand)
is called a split hypercover.
(Dugger-Hollander-Isaksen 02, def. 4.13) see also (Low 14-05-26, 8.2.15)
Definition 1 is equivalent to saying that $f : Y \to X$ is a local acyclic fibration: for all $U \in C$ and $n \in \mathbb{N}$ every lifting problem
has a solution $(\sigma_i)$ after refining to some covering family $\{U_i \to U\}$ of $U$
(Dugger-Hollander-Isaksen 02, prop. 7.2
If the topos $Sh(C)$ has enough points a morphism $f : Y \to X$ in $Sh(C)^{\Delta^{op}}$ is a hypercover if all its stalks are acyclic Kan fibrations.
In this form the notion of hypercover appears for instance in (Brown 73).
In some situations, we may be interested primarily in hypercovers that are built out of data entirely in the site $C$. We obtain such hypercovers by restricting $X$ to be a discrete simplicial object which is representable, and each $Y_n$ to be a coproduct of representables. This notion can equivalently be formulated in terms of diagrams $(\Delta/A) \to C$, where $A$ is some simplicial set and $(\Delta/A)$ is its category of simplices.
Consider the case that $X = const X_0$ is simplicially constant. Then the conditions on a morphism $Y \to X$ to be a hypercover is as follows.
in degree 0: $Y_0 \to X_0$ is a local epimorphism.
in degree 1: The commuting diagram in question is
Its pullback is $(Y_0 \times Y_0)_{X_0 \times X_0} X_0 \simeq Y_0 \times_{X_0} Y_0$, Hence the condition is that
$Y_1 \to Y_0 \times_{X_0} Y_0$ is a local epimorphism.
in degree 2: The commuting diagram in question is
So the condition is that the vertical morphism is a local epi.
Similarly, in any degree $n \geq 2$ the condition is that
is a local epimorphism.
For $U = \{U_i \to X\}$ a cover, the Cech nerve projection $C(U) \to X$ is a hypercover of height 0.
Given any site $(\mathcal{C},J)$ and given a diagram of simplicial presheaves
where the vertical morphism is a hypercover, then there exists a completion to a commuting diagram
where the left vertical morphism is a split hypercover, def. 2.
Moreover, if $(\mathcal{D}, K)\to (\mathcal{C},J)$ is a dense subsite then $Y'$ as above exists such that it is simplicial-degree wise a coproduct of (representables by) objects of $\mathcal{D}$.
(e.g. Low 14-05-26, lemma 8.2.20)
In particular taking $X'\to X$ in prop. 2 to be an identity, the proposition says that every hypercover may be refined by a split hypercover.
(see also Low 14-05-26, lemma 8.2.23)
A Verdier site is a small category with finite pullbacks equipped with a basis for a Grothendieck topology such that the generating covering maps $U_i \to X$ all have the property that their diagonal
is also a generating covering. We say that $U_i \to X$ is basal.
It is sufficient that all the $U_i \to X$ are monomorphisms.
Examples include the standard open cover-topology on Top.
A basal hypercover over a Verdier site is a hypercover $U \to X$ such that for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$ the components of the maps into the matching object $U_n \to M U_n$ are basal maps, as above.
Over a Verdier site, every hypercover may be refined by a split (def. 2) and basal hypercover (def. 4).
This is (Dugger-Hollander-Isaksen 02, theorem 8.6).
Let $f : Y \to X$ be a hypercover. We may regard this as an object in the overcategory $Sh(C)/X$. By the discussion here this is equivalently $Sh(C/X)$. Write $Ab(Sh(C/X))$ for the category of abelian group objects in the sheaf topos $Sh(C/X)$. This is an abelian category.
Forming in the sheaf topos the free abelian group on $f_n$ for each $n \in \mathbb{N}$, we obtain a simplicial abelian group object $\bar f \in Ab(Sh(C/X))^{\Delta}$. As such this has a normalized chain complex $N_\bullet(\bar f)$.
For $f : Y \to X$ a hypercover, the chain homology of $N(\bar f)$ vanishes in positive degree and is the group of integers in degree 0, as an object in $Ab(Sh(C)(X)$:
The following theorem characterizes the ∞-stack/(∞,1)-sheaf-condition for the presentation of an (∞,1)-topos by a local model structure on simplicial presheaves in terms of descent along hypercovers.
In the local model structure on simplicial presheaves $PSh(C)^{\Delta^{op}}$ an object is fibrant precisely if it is fibrant in the global model structure on simplicial presheaves and in addition satisfies descent along all hypercovers over representables that are degreewise coproducts of representables.
This is the central theorem in (Dugger-Hollander-Isaksen 02).
The following theorem is a corollary of this theorem, using the discussion at abelian sheaf cohomology. But historically it predates the above- theorem.
(Verdier’s hypercovering theorem)
For $X$ a topological space and $F$ a sheaf of abelian groups on $X$, we have that the abelian sheaf cohomology of $X$ with coefficients in $F$ is given
by computing for each hypercover $Y \to X$ the cochain cohomology of the Moore complex of the cosimplicial abelian group obtained by evaluating $F$ degreewise on the hypercover, and then taking the colimit of the result over the poset of all hypercovers over $X$.
A proof of this result in terms of the structure of a category of fibrant objects on the category of simplicial presheaves appears in (Brown 73, section 3).
The concept of hypercovers was introduced for abelian sheaf cohomology in
An early standard reference founding étale homotopy theory is
The modern reformulation of their notion of hypercover in terms of simplicial presheaves is mentioned for instance at the end of section 2, on p. 6 of
A discussion of hypercovers of topological spaces and relation to étale homotopy type of smooth schemes and A1-homotopy theory is in
Daniel Isaksen, Étale realization of the $\mathbb{A}^1$-homotopy theory of schemes, 2001 (K-theory archive)
Daniel Dugger, Daniel Isaksen, Hypercovers in topology, 2005 (pdf, K-Theory archive)
A discussion in a topos with enough points in in
A thorough discussion of hypercovers over representables and their role in descent for simplicial presheaves is in
On the Verdier hypercovering theorem see
Kenneth Brown, Abstract Homotopy Theory and Generalized Sheaf Cohomology
John Frederick Jardine, The Verdier hypercovering theorem (pdf)
Split hypercover refinement over general sites is discussed in