group cohomology, nonabelian group cohomology, Lie group cohomology
Hochschild cohomology, cyclic cohomology?
cohomology with constant coefficients / with a local system of coefficients
differential cohomology
Hochschild homology may be understood as the cohomology of free loop space objects (as described there). These free loop space objects are canonically equipped with a circle group-action that rotates the loops. Cyclic homology is the corresponding $S^1$-equivariant cohomology of free loop space objects.
Like Hochschild homology, cyclic homology is an additive invariant of dg-categories or stable infinity-categories, in the sense of noncommutative motives. It also admits a Dennis trace map from algebraic K-theory, and has been successful in allowing computations of the latter.
There are several definitions for the cyclic homology of an associative algebra $A$ (over a commutative ring $k$). Alain Connes originally defined cyclic homology over fields of characteristic zero, as the homology groups of a cyclic variant of the chain complex computing Hochschild homology. Jean-Louis Loday and Daniel Quillen gave a definition via a certain double complex (for arbitrary commutative rings). Connes gave another definition by associating to $A$ a cyclic vector space $A^\sharp$, and showing that the cyclic homology of $A$ may be computed as via Ext-groups $Ext^*(A^\sharp, k^\sharp)$. A fourth definition was given by Christian Kassel, who showed that the cyclic homology groups may be computed as the homology groups of a certain mixed complex associated to $A$.
Following Alexandre Grothendieck, Charles Weibel gave a definition of cyclic homology (and Hochschild homology) for schemes, using hypercohomology. On the other hand, the definition of Christian Kassel via mixed complexes was extended by Bernhard Keller to linear categories and dg-categories, and he showed that the cyclic homology of the dg-category of perfect complexes on a (nice) scheme $X$ coincides with the cyclic homology of $X$ in the sense of Weibel.
There are closely related variants called periodic cyclic homology? and negative cyclic homology?. There is a version for ring spectra called topological cyclic homology.
Let $A$ be an associative algebra over a ring $k$. Write $C_\bullet(A,A)$ for the Hochschild homology chain complex of $A$ with coefficients in $A$.
For each $n \in \mathbb{N}$ let $\lambda : C_n(A,A) \to C_n(A,A)$ be the $k$-linear map that cyclically permutes the elements and introduces a sign:
The cyclic homology complex $C^\lambda_\bullet(A)$ of $A$ is the quotient of the Hochschild homology complex of $A$ by cyclic permutations:
The homology of the cyclic complex, denoted
is called the cyclic homology of $A$.
The cyclic cohomology groups of $A$ Are the cohomology groups of the dual cochain complex, denoted $HC^n(A)$.
If $I\subset A$ is an ideal, then the relative cyclic homology groups $HC_n(A,I)$ are the homology groups of the complex $C_\bullet(A,I) = ker(C_\bullet(A)\to C_\bullet(A/I))$.
Let $X$ be a simply connected topological space.
The ordinary cohomology $H^\bullet$ of its free loop space is the Hochschild homology $HH_\bullet$ of its singular chains $C^\bullet(X)$:
Moreover the $S^1$-equivariant cohomology of the loop space, hence the ordinary cohomology of the cyclic loop space $\mathcal{L}X/^h S^1$ is the cyclic homology $HC_\bullet$ of the singular chains:
(Jones 87, Thm. A, review in Loday 92, Cor. 7.3.14, Loday 11, Sec 4)
If the coefficients are rational, and $X$ is of finite type then this may be computed by the Sullivan model for free loop spaces, see there the section on Relation to Hochschild homology.
In the special case that the topological space $X$ carries the structure of a smooth manifold, then the singular cochains on $X$ are equivalent to the dgc-algebra of differential forms (the de Rham algebra) and hence in this case the statement becomes that
This is known as Jones' theorem (Jones 87)
An infinity-category theoretic proof of this fact is indicated at Hochschild cohomology – Jones’ theorem.
The Loday-Quillen-Tsygan theorem (Loday-Quillen 84, Tsygan 83) states that for any associative algebra, $A$ in characteristic zero, the Lie algebra homology $H_\bullet(\mathfrak{gl}(A))$ of the infinite general linear Lie algebra $\mathfrak{gl}(A)$ with coefficients in $A$ is, up to a degree shift, the exterior algebra $\wedge(HC_{\bullet - 1}(A))$ on the cyclic homology $HC_{\bullet - 1}(A)$ of $A$:
(see e.g Loday 07, theorem 1.1).
Foundational articles:
A. Connes, Noncommutative differential geometry, Part I, the Chern character in $K$-homology, Preprint, Inst. Hautes Études Sci., Bures-sur-Yvette, 1982; Part II, de Rham homology and noncommutative algebra, Preprint, IHÉS 1983; Cohomologie cyclique et foncteurs $Ext^n$, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 296, (1983), pp. 953–958, MR86d:18007
Alain Connes, Cohomologie cyclique et foncteurs $Ext^n$, C.R.A.S. 296 (1983), Série I, 953-958 (pdf, pdf).
B. L. Tsygan, The homology of matrix Lie algebras over rings and the Hochschild homology, Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 38:2(230) (1983), 217–218.
Jean-Louis Loday, Daniel Quillen, Cyclic homology and the Lie algebra homology of matrices, Comment. Math. Helvetici 59 (1984) 565-591 (doi:10.1007/978-3-662-21739-9)
Christian Kassel, Cyclic homology, comodules and mixed complexes, J. Alg. 107 (1987), 195–216 (doi:10.1016/0021-8693(87)90086-X)
Monographs:
Jean-Louis Loday, Cyclic homology, Grundlehren Math.Wiss. 301, Springer (1998)
Alain Connes, Noncommutative geometry, Acad. Press 1994, 661 p. PDF
Max Karoubi, Homologie cyclique et K-théorie, Astérique 149, Société Mathématique de France (1987).
Ib Madsen, Algebraic K-theory and traces, Current Developments in Mathematics, 1995.
Lecture notes:
Jean-Louis Loday, Cyclic Homology Theory, Part II, notes taken by Pawel Witkowsk (2007) (pdf)
D. Kaledin, Tokyo lectures “Homological methods in non-commutative geometry”, (pdf, TeX); and related but different Seoul lectures
Masoud Khalkhali, A short survey of cyclic cohomology, arxiv/1008.1212
Some modern treatments:
Bernhard Keller, On the cyclic homology of ringed spaces and schemes, Doc. Math. J. DMV 3 (1998), 231-259, pdf.
Bernhard Keller, On the cyclic homology of exact categories, Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra 136 (1999), 1-56, pdf.
Bernhard Keller, Invariance and Localization for Cyclic Homology of DG algebras, Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra, 123 (1998), 223-273, pdf.
Charles Weibel, Cyclic homology for schemes, Proceedings of the AMS, 124 (1996), 1655-1662, web.
D. Kaledin, Cyclic homology with coefficients, math.KT/0702068, to appear in Yu. Manin’s 70th anniversary volume.
E. Getzler, M. Kapranov, Cyclic operads and cyclic homology, in: “Geometry, Topology and Physics for R. Bott”,
ed. S.-T. Yau, p. 167-201, International Press, Cambridge MA, 1995, pdf
Teimuraz Pirashvili, Birgit Richter, Hochschild and cyclic homology via functor homology, K-Theory 25 (2002), no. 1, 39–49, MR2003c:16011, doi
Jolanta Słomińska, Decompositions of the category of noncommutative sets and Hochschild and cyclic homology, Cent. Eur. J. Math. 1 (2003), no. 3, 327–331 (doi:10.2478/BF02475213, MR2004f:16011)
Some influential original references from 1980s:
Аддитивная K-теория и кристальные когомологии, Функц. анализ и его прил., 19:2 (1985), 52–-62, pdf, MR88e:18008; Engl. transl. in B. L. Feĭgin, B. L. Tsygan, Additive $K$-theory and crystalline cohomology, Functional Analysis and Its Applications, 1985, 19:2, 124–132.
no. 2, 187–215, MR87c:18009, doi
The relation to cyclic loop spaces:
reviewed in:
Jean-Louis Loday, Cyclic Spaces and $S^1$-Equivariant Homology (doi:10.1007/978-3-662-21739-9_7)
Chapter 7 in: Cyclic Homology, Grundlehren 301, Springer 1992 (doi:10.1007/978-3-662-21739-9)
Jean-Louis Loday, Section 4 of: Free loop space and homology, Chapter 4 in: Janko Latchev, Alexandru Oancea (eds.): Free Loop Spaces in Geometry and Topology, IRMA Lectures in Mathematics and Theoretical Physics 24, EMS 2015 (arXiv:1110.0405, ISBN:978-3-03719-153-8)
On the ordinary cohomology of cyclic loop spaces (“string cohomology”) computed directly (instead of via the isomorphism to cyclic homology):
and specifically for complex projective spaces:
On the cyclic homology of the groupoid convolution algebra of étale Lie groupoids, hence of orbifolds:
Jean-Luc Brylinski, Victor Nistor, Cyclic cohomology of étale groupoids, K-theory 8.4 (1994): 341-365 (pdf, pdf)
Marius Crainic, Cyclic Cohomology of Étale Groupoids; The General Case, K-Theory 17: 319–362, 1999 (arXiv:funct-an/9712001, published pdf)
The Loday-Quillen-Tsygan theorem is originally due, independently, to
and
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