equality (definitional?, propositional, computational, judgemental, extensional, intensional, decidable)
isomorphism, weak equivalence, homotopy equivalence, weak homotopy equivalence, equivalence in an (∞,1)-category
Examples.
basic constructions:
strong axioms
In constructive mathematics, a set $X$ has decidable equality if any two elements of $X$ are either equal or not equal. Equivalently, $X$ has decidable equality if its equality relation is a decidable subset of $X \times X$. Sometimes one says that such a set $X$ is discrete, although of course this term has many meanings. Of course, in classical mathematics, every set has decidable equality. But the concept generalises in topos theory to the notion of decidable object.
More generally, $X$ has stable equality if any two elements of $X$ are equal if (hence iff) they are not not equal. Every set with decidable equality must also have stable equality, but not conversely.
Working with decidable subsets of sets with decidable equality makes constructive mathematics very much like classical mathematics. This is why constructivism has few consequences for basic combinatorics and algebra (although it does have important consequences for more advanced topics in those fields). In analysis, in contrast, constructivism matters right away, because the set of real numbers may not have decidable equality. (However, the set of located real numbers does have stable equality.)
In type-theoretic foundations, the notion of decidable equality is slightly different depending on whether “or” is interpreted using propositions as types or propositions as some types. That is, decidable equality for $A$ could be either of the two types
where $[-]$ denotes a bracket type. Since every type maps to its bracket, $Decidable1(A)$ implies $Decidable2(A)$.
On the other hand, if $Decidable2(A)$ holds and $A$ is an h-set, i.e. it satisfies uniqueness of identity proofs, then $(x=y)$ and $\neg (x=y)$ represent disjoint subobjects of $A\times A$. Thus $(x=y) + \neg (x=y)$ is already a subobject of $A\times A$, so it is equivalent to its bracket, and $Decidable1(A)$ also holds.
The converse of this is also true: if $Decidable1(A)$ holds, then not only does $Decidable2(A)$ also hold, but in fact $A$ is an h-set. This was first proven by Michael Hedberg; a proof can be found at h-set and in the references below. This fact is useful in homotopy type theory to show that many familiar types, such as the natural numbers, are h-sets.
For non-h-sets, the difference between $Decidable1$ and $Decidable2$ can be dramatic. For instance, if we model homotopy type theory in a Boolean $(\infty,1)$-topos (such as $\infty Gpd$ constructed classically), then every type satisfies $Decidable2$ (which is what it means for the logic to be boolean), but only the h-sets satisfy $Decidable1$ (in accordance with Hedberg's theorem).
Michael Hedberg, A coherence theorem for Martin-Löf’s type theory, J. Functional Programming, 1998
Nicolai Kraus, A direct proof of Hedberg’s theorem, blog post