There are objects in , though, that do not come from “naively” delooping a topological space infinitely many times. These are the non-connective spectra. For general spectra there is a notion of homotopy groups of negative degree. The connective ones are precisely those for which all negative degree homotopy groups vanish.
Non-connective spectra are well familiar in as far as they are in the image of the nerve operation of the Dold-Kan correspondence: this identifies ∞-groupoids that are not only connective spectra but even have a strict symmetric monoidal group structure with non-negatively graded chain complexes of abelian groups.
The free stabilization of the (∞,1)-category of non-negatively graded chain complexes is simpy the stable (∞,1)-category of arbitrary chain complexes. There is a stable Dold-Kan correspondence that identifies these with special objects in .
So it is the homologically nontrivial parts of the chain complexes in negative degree that corresponds to the non-connectiveness of a spectrum.
|(∞,1)-operad||∞-algebra||grouplike version||in Top||generally|
|A-∞ operad||A-∞ algebra||∞-group||A-∞ space, e.g. loop space||loop space object|
|E-k operad||E-k algebra||k-monoidal ∞-group||iterated loop space||iterated loop space object|
|E-∞ operad||E-∞ algebra||abelian ∞-group||E-∞ space, if grouplike: infinite loop space Γ-space||infinite loop space object|
|connective spectrum||connective spectrum object|