A Frölicher space is one flavour of a generalized smooth space.
Frölicher smooth spaces are determined by a rule for
how to map the real line smoothly into it,
and how to map out of the space smoothly to the real line.
In the general context of space and quantity, Frölicher spaces take an intermediate symmetric position: they are both presheaves as well as copresheaves on their test domain (which here is the full subcategory of manifolds on the real line) and both of these structures determine each other.
The general abstract idea behind this is described at Isbell envelope.
Frölicher spaces and their morphisms form a category with an obvious faithful functor to the category of sets. The properties of this category are as follows.
To its eternal shame, the category of Frölicher spaces is not locally cartesian closed.
The notion goes back to Alfred Frölicher.
A detailed discussion of the category of Frölicher spaces and their relation to other notions of generalized smooth spaces is given in
This also lists all the relevant further references.
See also the unpublished thesis of Andreas Cap: