Contents

# Contents

## Idea

The two-valued type is an axiomatization of the two-valued object in the context of homotopy type theory.

## Definition

As an inductive type, the two-valued type is given by

Inductive Two : Type
| zero : Two
| one : Two

This says that the type is inductively constructed from two terms in the type Two, whose interpretation is as the two points of the type; hence the name two-valued type.

## Boolean logic

The two-valued type is also called the type of booleans. One could recursively define the logical functions on $\mathbf{2}$ as follows

• For negation $\neg$
• $\neg 0 := 1$
• $\neg 1 := 0$
• For conjunction $\wedge$
• $0 \wedge a := 0$
• $1 \wedge a := a$
• For disjunction $\vee$
• $0 \vee a := a$
• $1 \vee a := 1$
• For implication $\implies$
• $0 \implies a := 1$
• $1 \implies a := a$

One could prove that $(\mathbf{2}, 0, 1, \neg, \wedge, \vee, \implies)$ form a Boolean algebra. The poset structure is given by implication.

A boolean predicate valued in a type $T$ is a function $P: T \rightarrow \mathbf{2}$, and the type $T \to \mathbf{2}$ is a boolean function algebra for finite types $T$, and if path types exist, for all types $T$. Thus the functor $F: U \to BoolAlg$, $F(T) = T \to \mathbf{2}$ for a type universe $U$ is a Boolean hyperdoctrine, and one could do classical first-order logic inside $U$ if $\mathbf{2}$ and path types exist in $U$.

In fact, just with dependent sum types, dependent product types, empty type, unit type, and the two-valued type in a type universe $U$, any two-valued logic could be done inside $U$. Furthermore, since binary disjoint coproducts exist when $\mathbf{2}$ exists, all finite types exist in $U$, and any finitely-valued logic?, such as the internal logic of a finite cartesian power of Set, could be done inside $U$.

For finite types, one could also inductively define specific functions

$\forall a \in A.(-)(a):(A \to \mathbf{2}) \to \mathbf{2}$
$\exists a \in A.(-)(a):(A \to \mathbf{2}) \to \mathbf{2}$

from the type of boolean predicates on $A$ and $\mathbf{2}$ such that they behave like existential quantification and universal quantification.

## Bi-pointed types

A bi-pointed type is a type $A$ with a function $\mathbf{2}\to A$. Examples include the interval type and the function type of the natural numbers type.

## Properties

• A two-valued type is a suspension type of the empty type, and the suspension of an two-valued type is a circle type. Geometrically, a two-valued type is a zero-dimensional sphere.