nLab nucleon




physics, mathematical physics, philosophy of physics

Surveys, textbooks and lecture notes

theory (physics), model (physics)

experiment, measurement, computable physics

Fields and quanta

fields and particles in particle physics

and in the standard model of particle physics:

force field gauge bosons

scalar bosons

matter field fermions (spinors, Dirac fields)

flavors of fundamental fermions in the
standard model of particle physics:
generation of fermions1st generation2nd generation3d generation
quarks (qq)
up-typeup quark (uu)charm quark (cc)top quark (tt)
down-typedown quark (dd)strange quark (ss)bottom quark (bb)
neutralelectron neutrinomuon neutrinotau neutrino
bound states:
mesonslight mesons:
pion (udu d)
ρ-meson (udu d)
ω-meson (udu d)
ϕ-meson (ss¯s \bar s),
kaon, K*-meson (usu s, dsd s)
eta-meson (uu+dd+ssu u + d d + s s)

charmed heavy mesons:
D-meson (uc u c, dcd c, scs c)
J/ψ-meson (cc¯c \bar c)
bottom heavy mesons:
B-meson (qbq b)
ϒ-meson (bb¯b \bar b)
proton (uud)(u u d)
neutron (udd)(u d d)

(also: antiparticles)

effective particles

hadrons (bound states of the above quarks)


in grand unified theory

minimally extended supersymmetric standard model




dark matter candidates


auxiliary fields



Protons and neutrons (both examples of baryons, hence of hadrons are jointly called nucleons, since atomic nuclei are bound states of these.



See also

Via the Skyrme model

On nucleon interaction modeled via Skyrmions:

Walecka hadrodynamics with nucleon fields

On quantum hadrodynamics (relativivist effective field theory of nuclear physics, coupling mesons and nucleons) in the sense of the Walecka model, hence with nucleons appearing as explicit fields (as opposed to being solitonic Skyrmions in the pion field as in chiral perturbation theory).


The original Walecka model (QHD-I model), with nucleons coupled to sigma-mesons and omega-mesons:

Inclusion into the Walecka model also of the pion and the rho-meson (the QHD-II model):

Further discussion of these models:

Further inclusion of electromagnetism (photon field):

  • A. Yu. Korchin, D. Van Neck, M. Waroquier, Electromagnetic interaction in chiral quantum hadrodynamics and decay of vector and axial-vector mesons, Phys. Rev. C67 (2003) 015207 (arXiv:nucl-th/0302042)

Relation to quark-meson coupling model:

  • Koichi Saito, Relationship between Quark-Meson Coupling Model and Quantum Hadrodynamics, Prog. Theor. Phys. 108 (2002) 609-614 (arXiv:nucl-th/0207053)

Hadrodynamics via Light-front QCD

On light-front QCD for quantum hadrodynamics:

Via holographic QCD

nucleon form factors via holographic QCD:

via a nuclear matrix model:

nuclear binding energy

nuclear binding energy via the nuclear matrix model:

Last revised on March 8, 2021 at 01:51:00. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.