nLab concordance





Special and general types

Special notions


Extra structure





A concordance between cocycles in cohomology is a relation similar to but different from a plain coboundary, it is a “coboundary after geometric realization”.

A concordance is a left homotopy in an (∞,1)-topos with respect to a topological interval object, not with respect to the categorical interval .

For instance for S=DiffS = Diff the site of smooth manifolds, there is

  • the “topological interval” IH diffI \in \mathbf{H}_{diff} which is the smooth ∞-stack on DiffDiff represented by the manifold I=[0,1]I = [0,1];

  • the “categorical interval” Ex Δ 1H DiffEx^\infty \Delta^1 \in \mathbf{H}_{Diff} is the smooth ∞-stack that is constant on the free groupoid on a single morphism.


For H\mathbf{H} and (∞,1)-topos with a fixed notion of topological interval object II, for AAA \in \mathbf{A} any coefficient object and XHX \in \mathbf{H} any other object, a concordance between two objects

c,dH(X,A) c,d \in \mathbf{H}(X,A)

(two cocycles in AA-cohomology on XX)

is an object ηA(X×I)\eta \in A(X \times I) such that

X c X×I η A d X . \begin{matrix} X&&\\ \downarrow&\searrow^{c}&\\ X \times I&\stackrel{\eta}{\to}& A\\ \uparrow& \nearrow_{d}&\\ X&& \end{matrix} \,.


For topological principal bundles


(concordant topological principal bundles are isomorphic)
With kTopSpkTopSp denoting the category of compactly generated weakly Hausdorff spaces, for XkTopSpX \,\in\, kTopSp a k-topological space and GGrp(kTopSp)G \,\in\, Grp(kTopSp) a kk-topological group, consider a concordance between a pair of GG-principal bundles over XX,



(e.g. if XX admits the structure of a smooth manifold)

then there exists already an isomorphism of principal bundles

(e.g. Roberts & Stevenson 2016, Cor. 15)

Observe that isomorphisms f:PPf \,\colon\, P \xrightarrow{\;} P' between principal bundles over XX are equivalently global sections of the fiber bundle (P× XP)/G(P \times_X P')/G:

Here, from left to right, the dashed section follows by the universal property of the quotient space X=P/GX = P/G. From right to left, the top morphism follows by pullback along the dashed section, using that

  1. the bundle projections are effective epimorphisms by local triviality,

  2. their kernel pairs are as shown, by principality,

  3. compactly generated topological spaces form a regular category (by this Prop.),

  4. in a regular category pullback preserves effective epimorphisms (this Prop.) and, of course, their kernel pairs.

In particular, for every PP the identity morphism on it corresponds to the canonical section of (P× XP)/G(P \times_X P)/G.

In the given situation, this means that we have a canonical local section σ 0\sigma_0 making the following solid diagram commute, exhibiting that the restriction of the bundle P 0×[0,1]P_0 \times [0,1] to {0}[0,1]\{0\} \subset [0,1] is isomorphic to P 0P_0, by construction:



In either case, this implies that a lift exists, as shown by the dashed arrow above.

The resulting commutativity of the bottom right triangle says that this lift is a global section which hence exhibits an isomorphism of principal bundles (over X×[0,1]X \times [0,1]) of this form:

P XP 0×[0,1]. P \;\; \simeq_X \;\; P_0 \times [0,1] \,.

The restriction of this isomorphism to {1}[0,1]\{1\} \subset [0,1] is hence an isomorphism of the form P 1 XP 0P_1 \,\simeq_X\, P_0, as required.

For topological vector bundles

For topological vector bundles over paracompact Hausdorff spaces, concordance classes coincide with plain isomorphism classes:


(concordance of topological vector bundles)

Let XX be a paracompact Hausdorff space. If EX×[0,1]E \to X \times [0,1] is a topological vector bundle over the product space of XX with the closed interval (hence a concordance of topological vector bundles on XX), then the two endpoint-restrictions

E| X×{0}AAandAAE| X×{1} E|_{X \times \{0\}} \phantom{AA} \text{and} \phantom{AA} E|_{X \times \{1\}}

are isomorphic topological vector bundles over XX.

For proof see at topological vector bundle this Prop..

More examples

  • For A=VectrBund()A = VectrBund(-) the difference between concordance of vectorial bundles and isomorphism of vectorial bundles plays a crucial rule in the construction of K-theory from this model.

  • The notions of coboundary and concordance exist in every cohesive (∞,1)-topos.


Discussion of concordance of topological principal bundles (in fact for simplicial principal bundles parameterized over some base space):

Discussion of concordance in terms of the shape modality in the cohesive (∞,1)-topos of smooth ∞-groupoids (see at shape via cohesive path ∞-groupoid for more):

Last revised on November 15, 2021 at 11:21:31. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.