Fields and quanta

field (physics)

standard model of particle physics

force field gauge bosons

scalar bosons

matter field fermions (spinors, Dirac fields)

flavors of fundamental fermions in the
standard model of particle physics:
generation of fermions1st generation2nd generation3d generation
quarks (qq)
up-typeup quark (uu)charm quark (cc)top quark (tt)
down-typedown quark (dd)strange quark (ss)bottom quark (bb)
neutralelectron neutrinomuon neutrinotau neutrino
bound states:
mesonslight mesons:
pion (udu d)
ρ-meson (udu d)
ω-meson (udu d)
ϕ-meson (ss¯s \bar s),
kaon, K*-meson (usu s, dsd s)
eta-meson (uu+dd+ssu u + d d + s s)

charmed heavy mesons:
D-meson (uc u c, dcd c, scs c)
J/ψ-meson (cc¯c \bar c)
bottom heavy mesons:
B-meson (qbq b)
ϒ-meson (bb¯b \bar b)
proton (uud)(u u d)
neutron (udd)(u d d)

(also: antiparticles)

effective particles

hadron (bound states of the above quarks)


minimally extended supersymmetric standard model




dark matter candidates


auxiliary fields

Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

algebraic quantum field theory (perturbative, on curved spacetimes, homotopical)



field theory:

Lagrangian field theory


quantum mechanical system, quantum probability

free field quantization

gauge theories

interacting field quantization



States and observables

Operator algebra

Local QFT

Perturbative QFT



In the plain minimally supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), baryon/lepton number would not need to be preserved. Since however experimental observation indicates that these quantum observables are preserved to high accuracy, a common ad hoc solution in bottom-up model-building is to impose a certain Z/2-action on the MSSM as a global symmetry, called R-parity, which does enforce baryon/lepton number conservation.

From a top-down model building-perspective there is the rough idea that R-parity may be thought of as a discrete remnant of R-symmetry (e.g. Chamseddine-Dreiner 96, p. 2, Frugiuele-Gregoire 11)

There remain speculations that even if MSSM-like models are realistic, R-parity might in fact be violated in nature after all, such as as possibly indicated by the apparent flavour anomalies (Wang-Yang-Yuan 19).


The original articles are

See also

Discussion of possible relation to R-symmetry:

  • Ali Chamseddine, Herbi Dreiner, Anomaly-Free Gauged R-Symmetry in Local Supersymmetry, Nucl.Phys. B458 (1996) 65-89 (arXiv:hep-ph/9504337)

  • Claudia Frugiuele, Thomas Gregoire, Making the Sneutrino a Higgs with a U(1) RU(1)_R Lepton Number, PhysRev D.85.015016 (arXiv:1107.4634)

In SemiSpin(32)-heterotic string phenomenology:

  • Saul Ramos-Sanchez, Section 5.4 of Towards Low Energy Physics from the Heterotic String, Fortsch. Phys. 10:907-1036, 2009 (arXiv:0812.3560)

Suggestion that the MSSM with R-parity violation could explain the flavour anomalies:

  • Dong-Yang Wang, Ya-Dong Yang, Xing-Bo Yuan, bcτν¯b \to c \tau \bar \nu decays in supersymmetry with R-parity violation (arXiv:1905.08784)

  • Quan-Yi Hu, Lin-Lin Huang, Explaining bs + b\to s \ell^+ \ell^- data by sneutrinos in the R-parity violating MSSM (arXiv:1912.03676)

  • Quan-Yi Hu, Ya-Dong Yang, Min-Di Zheng, Revisiting the B-physics anomalies in R-parity violating MSSM (arXiv:2002.09875)

  • Wolfgang Altmannshofer, P. S. Bhupal Dev, Amarjit Soni, Yicong Sui, Addressing R D *R_{D^\ast}, R K *R_{K^\ast}, muon g2g-2 and ANITA anomalies in a minimal R-parity violating supersymmetric framework (arXiv:2002.12910)

Last revised on March 2, 2020 at 05:55:41. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.