Hodge cycle




Special and general types

Special notions


Extra structure



Complex geometry



On a Kähler manifold XX a Hodge cycle is a 2p2p-cycle in integral ordinary homology which corresponds to an element in Dolbeault homology of bidegree (p,p)(p,p).

Dually, a Hodge cocycle on XX is an integral ordinary cohomology class of even degree 2p2p which corresponds to an element in the Dolbeault cohomology group H p,p(X)H^{p,p}(X).


For Kähler manifolds


For XX be a Kähler manifold with Dolbeault cohomology groups H p,q(X)H^{p,q}(X), then for any pp \in \mathbb{N} the group of Hodge cohomology classes represented by Hodge cocycles is the fiber product

Hdg p(X)H 2p(X,)×H 2p(X,)H p,p(X) Hdg^p(X) \coloneqq H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{Z}) \underset{H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{C})}{\times} H^{p,p}(X)


Hdg p(X) H 2p(X,) H p,p(X) H 2p(X,) ι p,p H 2p(X,) \array{ && Hdg^p(X) \\ & \swarrow && \searrow \\ H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{Z}) && && H^{p,p}(X) \\ & {}_{\mathllap{H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{Z} \hookrightarrow \mathbb{C})}}\searrow && \swarrow_{\mathrlap{\iota}_{p,p}} \\ && H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{C}) } \,


For general complex analytic spaces

Def. has the following equivalent reformulation, which generalizes the definition to complex analytic spaces and to schemes over the complex numbers.

Since the left arrow here factors through real cohomology, this is in fact the same as the pullback


For XX a complex analytic space with Hodge filtration F H 2p(X,)F^\bullet H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{C}) on its complex cohomology, then the group of Hodge cohomology classes represented by Hodge cocycles is the fiber product

Hdg p(X)H 2p(X,)×H 2p(X,)F pH 2p(X,𝕏) Hdg^p(X) \coloneqq H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{Z}) \underset{H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{C})}{\times} F^p H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{X})


Hdg p(X) H 2p(X,) F pH 2p(X,) H 2p(X,). \array{ && Hdg^p(X) \\ & \swarrow && \searrow \\ H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{Z}) && && F^p H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{C}) \\ & \searrow && \swarrow \\ && H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{C}) } \,.

If the complex analytic space XX happens to carry the structure of a Kähler manifold, then definition reduces to definition .

(e.g. Esnault-Viehweg 88, section 7.8)


The map from integral cohomology to complex cohomology factors through that of real cohomology via

\mathbb{Z} \hookrightarrow \mathbb{R}\hookrightarrow \mathbb{C}

and by Hodge symmetry the real cohomology classes are precisely thos represented by elements of the form α+α¯\alpha + \overline{\alpha}, where

()¯:H 1, 2(X)H 2, 1(X) \overline{(-)} \;\colon\; H^{\bullet_1, \bullet_2}(X) \to H^{\bullet_2, \bullet_1}(X)

is complex conjugation. But the mid-dimensional Hodge filtration is

F pH 2p(X,)=H p,p(X)H p+1,p1(X)H p+2,p2(X)H 2p,0(X) F^p H^{2p}(X,\mathbb{C}) = H^{p,p}(X) \oplus H^{p+1,p-1}(X) \oplus H^{p+2,p-2}(X) \oplus \cdots \oplus H^{2p,0}(X)

and hence the only elements invariant under complex conjugation – hence the only real cohomology classes – that it includes are those in H p,p(X)H^{p,p}(X), which is the subgroup appearing in def. .


In the form of def. the definition of Hodge cocycles generalizes to any context in which there is a Hodge structure. Notably it generalizes to a natural concept of Hodge cocycles in generalized (Eilenberg-Steenrod) cohomology (e.g. Hopkins-Quick 12, below remark 4.12)


Relation to intermediate Jacobians

There is a canonical map from holomorphic Deligne cohomology (ordinary differential cohomology) H 2k+2(X,Ω 0Ω k0)H^{2k+2}(X, \mathbb{Z}\to \Omega^0 \to \cdots\to \Omega^{k}\to 0 \to \cdots) to Hodge cocycles. The fiber of that map is the intermediate Jacobian J k+1(X)J^{k+1}(X). See there for details.


The general formulation in terms of Hodge filtration for ordinary cohomology is noted for instance in

  • Hélène Esnault, Eckart Viehweg, section 7.8 of Deligne-Beilinson cohomology in Rapoport, Schappacher, Schneider (eds.) Beilinson’s Conjectures on Special Values of L-Functions . Perspectives in Math. 4, Academic Press (1988) 43 - 91 (pdf)

in the context of discussion of intermediate Jacobians.

The general formulation in terms of Hodge filtration for generalized (Eilenberg-Steenrod) cohomology is noted for instance in

See also

Last revised on June 11, 2014 at 21:26:45. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.