nLab
Euler formula for planar graphs

Context

Graph theory

Homotopy theory

homotopy theory, (∞,1)-category theory, homotopy type theory

flavors: stable, equivariant, rational, p-adic, proper, geometric, cohesive, directed

models: topological, simplicial, localic, …

see also algebraic topology

Introductions

Definitions

Paths and cylinders

Homotopy groups

Basic facts

Theorems

Contents

Statement

For a connected finite planar graph Γ\Gamma the numbers of edges, vertices and number of regions enclosed by edges (“faces”) always satisfies the relation

1=|Vertices(Γ)||Edges(Γ)|+|Faces(Γ)|. 1 = \vert Vertices(\Gamma)\vert - \vert Edges(\Gamma)\vert + \vert Faces(\Gamma)\vert \,.

By passing to the one-point compactification of the plane, which is the 2-sphere, we may think of the planar graph as a polyhedron embedded in the 2-sphere. Under this identification the above is a special case of the general formula for Euler characteristic of CW-complexes. See at Euler characteristic – Of topological spaces.

Applications

In perturbative quantum field theory

That the loop order of a (planar) Feynman diagram is its contribution in powers of Planck's constant to the scattering amplitude is a consequence of Euler’s formula. See at loop order – Relation to powers in Planck’s constant

References

Last revised on August 1, 2018 at 13:36:57. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.