topology (point-set topology, point-free topology)
see also differential topology, algebraic topology, functional analysis and topological homotopy theory
Basic concepts
fiber space, space attachment
Extra stuff, structure, properties
Kolmogorov space, Hausdorff space, regular space, normal space
sequentially compact, countably compact, locally compact, sigma-compact, paracompact, countably paracompact, strongly compact
Examples
Basic statements
closed subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are equivalently compact subspaces
open subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are locally compact
compact spaces equivalently have converging subnet of every net
continuous metric space valued function on compact metric space is uniformly continuous
paracompact Hausdorff spaces equivalently admit subordinate partitions of unity
injective proper maps to locally compact spaces are equivalently the closed embeddings
locally compact and second-countable spaces are sigma-compact
Theorems
Analysis Theorems
manifolds and cobordisms
cobordism theory, Introduction
As any sphere, the 4-sphere has the coset space structure
There is also this:
The coset space of Sp(2).Sp(1) (this Def.) by Sp(1)Sp(1)Sp(1) (this Def.) is the 4-sphere:
This follows essentially from the quaternionic Hopf fibration and its $Sp(2)$-equivariance…
(e.g. Bettiol-Mendes 15, (3.1), (3.2), (3.3))
The homotopy groups of the 4-sphere in low degree are
$k$ | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
$\pi_k(S^4)$ | $\ast$ | 0 | 0 | 0 | $\mathbb{Z}$ | $\mathbb{Z}_2$ | $\mathbb{Z}_2$ | $\mathbb{Z} \times \mathbb{Z}_2$ | $\mathbb{Z}_2^2$ | $\mathbb{Z}_2^2$ | $\mathbb{Z}_{24} \times \mathbb{Z}_3$ | $\mathbb{Z}_{15}$ | $\mathbb{Z}_2$ |
The 4-sphere participates in the quaternionic Hopf fibration, the analog of the complex Hopf fibration with the field of complex numbers replaced by the division ring of quaternions or Hamiltonian numbers $\mathbb{H}$.
Here the idea is that $S^7$ may be construed as
with $p$ mapping $(x, y)$ to $x/y$ as an element in the projective line $\mathbb{P}^1(\mathbb{H}) \cong S^4$, with each fiber a torsor parameterized by quaternionic scalars $\lambda$ of unit norm (so $\lambda \in S^3$). This canonical $S^3$-bundle (or $SU(2)$-bundle) is classified by a map $S^4 \to \mathbf{B} SU(2)$.
There are other useful ways to parameterize the quaternionic Hopf fibration, such as the original Hopf construction, see there the section Hopf fibrations. By this parameterization $S^4$ is identified as $S^4 \simeq S(\mathbb{R} \oplus \mathbb{H})$.
The 4-sphere is the quotient space of the complex projective plane by the action on homogeneous coordinates of complex conjugation.
Vladimir Arnold, Ramied covering $\mathbb{C}P^2 \to S^4$, hyperbolicity and projective topology, Siberian Math. Journal 1988, V. 29, N 5, P.36-47
Vladimir Arnold, On disposition of ovals of real plane algebraic curves, involutions of four-dimensional manifolds and arithmetics of integer quadratic forms, Funct. Anal. and Its Appl., 1971, V. 5, N 3, P. 1-9.
William Massey, The quotient space of the complex projective space under conjugation is a 4-sphere, Geometriae Didactica 1973
Nicolaas Kuiper, The quotient space of ℂP(2) by complex conjugation is the 4-sphere, Mathematische Annalen, 1974
J.A.Hillman, An explicit formula for a branched covering from $\mathbb{C}P^2$ to $S^4$ (arXiv:1705.05038)
It is open whether the 4-sphere admits an exotic smooth structure. See (Freedman-Gompf-Morrison-Walker 09) for review.
If we identify $\mathbb{R}^5 \simeq_{\mathbb{Q}} \mathbb{R} \oplus \mathbb{H}$ with the direct sum of the real line with the real vector space underlying the quaternions, so that
as in the discussion of the quaternionic Hopf fibration above, then there is induced an action of the group SU(2) on the 4-sphere, by identifying
and then acting by left multiplication.
Given an continuous action of the circle group on the topological 4-sphere, its fixed point space is of one of two types:
either it is the 0-sphere $S^0 \hookrightarrow S^4$
or it has the rational homotopy type of an even-dimensional sphere.
(Félix-Oprea-Tanré 08, Example 7.39)
For more see at group actions on spheres.
As a special case of the $SU(2)$-action from above, we discuss the induced circle action via the embedding
Consider the following circle group action on the 4-sphere:
($SU(2)$-action on 4-sphere)
Regard
as the unit sphere inside the direct sum (as real vector spaces) of the real numbers with the quaternions, and regard the special unitary group $SU(2)$ as the group of unit-norm quaternions
In particular this restricts to an action of the circle group
(as the diagonal matrices inside $SU(2)$) on the 4-sphere.
The resulting ordinary quotient is $S^4/_{ord} S^1 \simeq S^3$ and the projection $S^4 \to S^3$ is the suspension of the complex Hopf fibration $S^3 \to S^2$.
The fixed point set of the action is the two poles
introduced by the suspension, hence forms the 0-sphere space. Since this is not the empty set, the homotopy quotient $S^4 // S^1$ of the circle action differs from $S^3$, but there is still the canonical projection
Hence both $S^4$ and $S^4 // S^1$ are canonically homotopy types over $S^3$.
A minimal dg-module presentation in rational homotopy theory for these projections is given in Roig & Saralegi-Aranguren 00, second page:
(Roig & Saralegi-Aranguren 00, p. 2)
Write
for the minimal Sullivan model of the 3-sphere. Then rational minimal dg-modules for the maps (via Def. )
as dg-modules over $CE(\mathfrak{l}(S^3))$ are given as follows, respectively:
Beware that in the model for $S^4//S^2$ the element $\omega_2$ induces its entire polynomial algebra as generator of the dg-module.
Notice that we changed the notation of the generators compared to Roig & Saralegi-Aranguren 00, second page, to bring out the pattern:
$\phantom{A}$Roig$\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}$here$\phantom{A}$ |
---|---|
$\phantom{A}a\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}h_3\phantom{A}$ |
$\phantom{A}1\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}\tilde\omega_0\phantom{A}$ |
$\phantom{A}c_{2n}\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}\tilde\omega_{2n+2}\phantom{A}$ |
$\phantom{A}c_{2n+1}\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}\omega_{2n+4}\phantom{A}$ |
$\phantom{A}e\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}\omega_2\phantom{A}$ |
$\phantom{A}\gamma_{2n}\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}\tilde\omega_{2n}\phantom{A}$ |
$\phantom{A}\gamma_{2n+1}\phantom{A}$ | $\phantom{A}\omega_{2n}\phantom{A}$ |
The supersymmetric Freund-Rubin compactifications of 11-dimensional supergravity which are Cartesian products of 7-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime with a compact 4-dimensional orbifold
(the near horizon geometry of a black M5-brane) are all of the form
where $G \subset SU(2)$ is a finite subgroup of $SU(2)$ (i.e. an ADE group), acting via the identification $S^4 \simeq S(\mathbb{R} \oplus \mathbb{H})$ as above, and where the double slash denotes the homotopy quotient (orbifold quotient).
See (AFHS 98, section 5.2, MF 12, section 8.3).
We discuss the rational homotopy theory of the free loop space $\mathcal{L}(S^4)$ of $S^4$, as well as the cyclic loop space $\mathcal{L}(S^4)/S^1$ using the results from Sullivan models of free loop spaces:
Let $X = S^4$ be the 4-sphere. The corresponding rational n-sphere has minimal Sullivan model
with
Hence this prop. gives for the rationalization of $\mathcal{L}S^4$ the model
with
and this prop gives for the rationalization of $\mathcal{L}S^4 / / S^1$ the model
with
Let $\hat \mathfrak{g} \to \mathfrak{g}$ be a central Lie algebra extension by $\mathbb{R}$ of a finite dimensional Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$, and let $\mathfrak{g} \longrightarrow b \mathbb{R}$ be the corresponding L-∞ 2-cocycle with coefficients in the line Lie 2-algebra $b \mathbb{R}$, hence (FSS 13, prop. 3.5) so that there is a homotopy fiber sequence of L-∞ algebras
which is dually modeled by
For $X$ a space with Sullivan model $(A_X,d_X)$ write $\mathfrak{l}(X)$ for the corresponding L-∞ algebra, i.e. for the $L_\infty$-algebra whose Chevalley-Eilenberg algebra is $(A_X,d_X)$:
Then there is an isomorphism of hom-sets
with $\mathfrak{l}(S^4)$ from this prop. and $\mathfrak{l}(\mathcal{L}S^4 //S^1)$ from this prop., where on the right we have homs in the slice over the line Lie 2-algebra, via this prop.
Moreover, this isomorphism takes
to
where
with $e$ being the central generator in $CE(\hat \mathfrak{g})$ from above, and where the equations take place in $\wedge^\bullet \hat \mathfrak{g}^\ast$ with the defining inclusion $\wedge^\bullet \mathfrak{g}^\ast \hookrightarrow \wedge^\bullet \mathfrak{g}^\ast$ understood.
This is observed in (FSS 16, FSS 16b), where it serves to formalize, on the level of rational homotopy theory, the double dimensional reduction of M-branes in M-theory to D-branes in type IIA string theory (for the case that $\mathfrak{g}$ is type IIA super Minkowski spacetime $\mathbb{R}^{9,1\vert \mathbf{16}+ \overline{\mathbf{16}}}$ and $\hat \mathfrak{g}$ is 11d super Minkowski spacetime $\mathbb{R}^{10,1\vert \mathbf{32}}$, and the cocycles are those of The brane bouquet).
By the fact that the underlying graded algebras are free, and since $e$ is a generator of odd degree, the given decomposition for $\omega_4$ and $h_7$ is unique.
Hence it is sufficient to observe that under this decomposition the defining equations
for the $\mathfrak{l}S^4$-valued cocycle on $\hat \mathfrak{g}$ turn into the equations for a $\mathfrak{l} ( \mathcal{L}S^4 / S^1 )$-valued cocycle on $\mathfrak{g}$. This is straightforward:
as well as
The unit of the double dimensional reduction-adjunction
(this prop.) applied to the $S^1$-principal infinity-bundle
is a natural map
from the homotopy quotient by the circle action (def. ), to the cyclic loop space of the 4-sphere.
Michael Freedman, Robert Gompf, Scott Morrison, Kevin Walker, Man and machine thinking about the smooth 4-dimensional Poincaré conjecture, Quantum Topology, Volume 1, Issue 2 (2010), pp. 171-208 (arXiv:0906.5177)
Agustí Roig, Martintxo Saralegi-Aranguren, Minimal Models for Non-Free Circle Actions, Illinois Journal of Mathematics, volume 44, number 4 (2000) (arXiv:math/0004141)
Bobby Acharya, José Figueroa-O'Farrill, Chris Hull, B. Spence, Branes at conical singularities and holography , Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2 (1998) 1249–1286
Yves Félix, John Oprea, Daniel Tanré, Algebraic Models in Geometry, Oxford University Press 2008
Paul de Medeiros, José Figueroa-O'Farrill, Half-BPS M2-brane orbifolds, Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. Volume 16, Number 5 (2012), 1349-1408. (arXiv:1007.4761, Euclid)
Renato G. Bettiol, Ricardo A. E. Mendes, Flag manifolds with strongly positive curvature, Math. Z. 280 (2015), no. 3-4, 1031-1046 (arXiv:1412.0039)
Selman Akbulut, Homotopy 4-spheres associated to an infinite order loose cork (arXiv:1901.08299)
All PL 4-manifolds are simple branched covers of the 4-sphere:
Riccardo Piergallini, Four-manifolds as 4-fold branched covers of $S^4$, Topology Volume 34, Issue 3, July 1995 (doi:10.1016/0040-9383(94)00034-I, pdf)
Massimiliano Iori, Riccardo Piergallini, 4-manifolds as covers of the 4-sphere branched over non-singular surfaces, Geom. Topol. 6 (2002) 393-401 (arXiv:math/0203087)
Speculative remarks on the possible role of maps from spacetime to the 4-sphere in some kind of quantum gravity via spectral geometry (related to the Connes-Lott-Chamseddine-Barrett model) are in
Ali Chamseddine, Alain Connes, Viatcheslav Mukhanov, Quanta of Geometry: Noncommutative Aspects, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 9, 091302 (arXiv:1409.2471)
Ali Chamseddine, Alain Connes, Viatcheslav Mukhanov, Geometry and the Quantum: Basics, JHEP 12 (2014) 098 (arXiv:1411.0977)
Alain Connes, section 4 of Geometry and the Quantum, in Foundations of Mathematics and Physics One Century After Hilbert, Springer 2018. 159-196 (arXiv:1703.02470, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-64813-2)
Alain Connes, from 58:00 to 1:25:00 in Why Four Dimensions and the Standard Model Coupled to Gravity - A Tentative Explanation From the New Geometric Paradigm of NCG, talk at IHES, 2017 (video recording)
Last revised on October 12, 2019 at 05:58:08. See the history of this page for a list of all contributions to it.