group cohomology, nonabelian group cohomology, Lie group cohomology
cohomology with constant coefficients / with a local system of coefficients
differential cohomology
What are called the standard conjectures on algebraic cycles are several conjectures brought up by Grothendieck, concerned with the relation between algebraic cycles and Weil cohomology theories. The first (Lefschetz standard conjecture) is an existence assertion for algebraic cycles (Grothendieck - 68), the second (Hodge standard conjecture) is a statement of positivity, generalising Weil’s well-known positivity theorem in the theory of abelian varieties (Grothendieck - 68). They were also followed by the Beilinson conjectures“.
The proof of the two standard conjectures would yield results going considerably further than Weil’s conjectures. They would form the basis of the so-called “theory of motives” which is a systematic theory of “arithmetic properties” of algebraic variety(ies), as embodied in their groups of classes of cycles for numerical equivalence. We have at present only a very small part of this theory in dimension one, as contained in the theory of abelian variety(ies). (Grothendieck - 68)
Alongside the problem of resolution of singularities, the proof of the standard conjectures seems to me to be the most urgent task in algebraic geometry.
For the Beilinson conjectures, see the references there.