There are at least two formalizations of quantization, one of them is geometric quantization. In this context a quantum state is identified with a certain section (a polarized section) of a certain complex line bundle: the prequantum line bundle.
Here a section of the prequantum line bundle is what is physics is called a wave function or probability amplitude on the space of field configurations. A choice of polarization on this space is a choice of “canonical coordinates” and “canonical momenta”. Hence a polarized section, and hence a quantum state in the sense of geometric quantization, is, in physics language, a wave function of the canonical coordinates.
For details see at geometric quantization – Space of quantum states.
|Poisson algebra||Poisson manifold|
|deformation quantization||geometric quantization|
|algebra of observables||space of states|
|Heisenberg picture||Schrödinger picture|
|higher algebra||higher geometry|
|Poisson n-algebra||n-plectic manifold|
|En-algebras||higher symplectic geometry|
|BD-BV quantization||higher geometric quantization|
|factorization algebra of observables||extended quantum field theory|
|factorization homology||cobordism representation|
|bulk field theory||boundary field theory|
|wave function||correlation function|
|space of quantum states||conformal blocks|