A rational homotopy equivalence is the notion of equivalence of topological spaces as used in rational homotopy theory. Where a weak homotopy equivalence in ordinary homotopy theory identifies spaces under morphisms that induce isomorphisms on all homotopy groups, rational homotopy equivalences identify spaces under morphisms that induce isomorphisms on all rationalized homotopy groups.
For $X$ and $Y$ be simply connected topological spaces and $f : X \to Y$ a continuous map between them, $f$ is called a rational homotopy equivalence if the following equivalent conditions are satisfied:
it induces an isomorphism on rationalized homotopy groups: $\pi_*(f) : \pi_*(X) \stackrel{\simeq}{\to} \pi_*(X)$;
it induces an isomorphism on rational homology groups: $H_*(f,\mathbb{Q}) : H_*(X,\mathbb{Q}) \stackrel{\simeq}{\to} H_*(X,\mathbb{Q})$;
it induces an isomorphism on rational cohomology groups: $H^*(f,\mathbb{Q}) : H^*(X,\mathbb{Q}) \stackrel{\simeq}{\to} H^*(X,\mathbb{Q})$;
it induces a weak homotopy equivalence on the rationalizations $X_{ra}$ and $Y_{ra}$ : $f_{ra} : X_{ra} \stackrel{\simeq_{whe}}{\to} Y_{ra}$.
This appears as definition 1.17 in the review