Given a fibered category , a presheaf of groups (possibly representable), an object in , and an action (generalizing the action in the representable case), one says that the object in the fiber is -equivariant if is equipped with an action on , i.e., it is equipped with a natural transformation such that for any , satisfies the action axiom of a group on a set , and such that . The -equivariant objects naturally form a fibered category of equivariant objects.
Alternatively, if and are complete and is represented by in , the equivariant fiber over a -object is simply the fiber over the simplicial object (the simplicial Borel construction), that is the category of Cartesian functors from the opposite of the category of simplices considered as a fibered category to the fibered category , such that the bottom component is .
Equivariant objects in fibered categories generalize equivariant sheaves which in turn generalize (sheaves of sections of) -equivariant bundles. The description of -equivariant sheaves via cartesian sections over the simplicial Borel construction translates into the statement that they form the category equivalent to the subcategory of the category of Deligne sheaves? over the simplicial Borel construction all of whose structure morphisms are isomorphisms. Mumford has expressed -equivariant sheaves over a -space as sheaves equipped with an isomorphism where is the projection and is the action, and such that satisfies a certain cocycle condition, which is an identity of sheaves over .
For -equivariant sheaves over a topological -space (as opposed to a -object in a Grothendieck site), one can extend the canonical equivalence between étale spaces over and sheaves over to a canonical equivalence between étale -spaces over and -equivariant sheaves over .